31 March, 2008

Block Adservers

If you wanna remove those nasty ads from the pages which waste lot of time and bandwidth then here is something for you I belive it will help you a lot


how it works
It's possible to set up a name server as authoritative for any domain you choose, allowing you to specify the DNS records for that domain. You can also configure most computers to be sort of mini-nameservers for themselves, so that they check their own DNS records before asking a nameserver. Either way, you get to say what hostname points to what IP address. If you haven't guessed already, the way you block ads it to provide bogus information about the domains we don't want to see - ie, all those servers out there that dedicate their existence to spewing out banner ads.

The hosts file

Probably the most common way people block ads like this is with something called the "hosts file". The hosts file is a simple list of hostnames and their corresponding IP addresses, which your computer looks at every time you try and contact a previously unknown hostname. If it finds an entry for the computer you're trying to reach, it sets the IP address for that computer to be whatever's in the hosts file.

127.0.0.1 is a special IP address which, to a computer, always means that computer. Any time a machine sends a network request to 127.0.0.1, it is talking to itself. This is very useful when it comes to blocking ads, because all we have to do is specify the IP address of any ad server to be 127.0.0.1. And to do that, all we have to do is edit the hosts file. What will happen then is something like this:

1. you visit a web page
2. the web page contains a banner ad stored on the server "ads.example.com"
3. your computer says "ads.example.com? never heard of it. wait a second, let's see if I've got the number on me..."
4. your computer finds its hosts file and checks to see if ads.example.com is listed
5. it finds the hostname, which points to 127.0.0.1
6. "great", says the computer, and sends off a request to 127.0.0.1 for the banner ad that's supposed to be on the page
7. "oh", says the computer, and fails to show anything because it just sent a request to itself for a banner ad

Where's my hosts file?

* Windows 95 / 98 / ME: C:\Windows (I think)
* Windows NT: C:\WinNT\hosts
* Windows 2000: C:\WinNT\system32\drivers\etc\
* Windows XP: C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc
* FreeBSD / Linux / Mac OS X / Unixish operating systems: /etc/hosts
* Classic Mac OS: please read this helpful information submitted by David "iNerd" B
* Mac OS 9: Marcia Skidmore sent in details that hopefully explain what you need to know

The format of the hosts file is very simple - IP address, whitespace, then a list of hostnames (except for older Macs; please see above). However, you don't need to know anything about the format if you don't want to as you can just view the list hosts file.

Of course, that's not the only way to use the list, but it's probably the most simple for most people.


here is the hosts list which are serving you the ads just append it to your hosts file and enjoy ad free surfing makes things faster. if you want ad from certain site then just remove it from the list below.

QUOTE
127.0.0.1 007arcadegames.com
127.0.0.1 101order.com
127.0.0.1 123banners.com
127.0.0.1 123found.com
127.0.0.1 180searchassistant.com
127.0.0.1 180solutions.com
127.0.0.1 247media.com
127.0.0.1 247realmedia.com
127.0.0.1 24pm-affiliation.com
127.0.0.1 2log.com
127.0.0.1 2o7.net
127.0.0.1 4affiliate.net
127.0.0.1 4d5.net
127.0.0.1 7adpower.com
127.0.0.1 911promotion.com
127.0.0.1 a-counter.kiev.ua
127.0.0.1 a.consumer.net
127.0.0.1 a.gismeteo.ru
127.0.0.1 a.mktw.net
127.0.0.1 a.r.tv.com
127.0.0.1 a.xanga.com
127.0.0.1 a32.g.a.yimg.com
127.0.0.1 aaddzz.com
127.0.0.1 abcnews.footprint.net
127.0.0.1 abetterinternet.com
127.0.0.1 abz.com
127.0.0.1 ac.rnm.ca
127.0.0.1 accelerator-media.com
127.0.0.1 accipiter.speedera.net
127.0.0.1 action.ientry.net
127.0.0.1 actionsplash.com
127.0.0.1 actualdeals.com
127.0.0.1 ad-annex.com
127.0.0.1 ad-flow.com
127.0.0.1 ad-images.suntimes.com
127.0.0.1 ad-logics.com
127.0.0.1 ad-rotator.com
127.0.0.1 ad-server.gulasidorna.se
127.0.0.1 ad-souk.com
127.0.0.1 ad-space.net
127.0.0.1 ad-tech.com
127.0.0.1 ad-universe.com
127.0.0.1 ad-up.com
127.0.0.1 ad.100.tbn.ru
127.0.0.1 ad.37.com
127.0.0.1 ad.4web.cz
127.0.0.1 ad.71i.de
127.0.0.1 ad.a8.net
127.0.0.1 ad.abcnews.com
127.0.0.1 ad.abctv.com
127.0.0.1 ad.about.com
127.0.0.1 ad.aboutit.de
127.0.0.1 ad.aboutwebservices.com
127.0.0.1 ad.aftonbladet.se
127.0.0.1 ad.allstar.cz
127.0.0.1 ad.altervista.org
127.0.0.1 ad.asap-asp.net
127.0.0.1 ad.bondage.com
127.0.0.1 ad.centrum.cz
127.0.0.1 ad.cgi.cz
127.0.0.1 ad.chip.de
127.0.0.1 ad.clix.pt
127.0.0.1 ad.digitallook.com
127.0.0.1 ad.directconnect.se
127.0.0.1 ad.disney.go.com
127.0.0.1 ad.domainfactory.de
127.0.0.1 ad.dvdforum.nu
127.0.0.1 ad.e-kolay.net
127.0.0.1 ad.e-not.net
127.0.0.1 ad.eurosport.com
127.0.0.1 ad.ezpeer.com
127.0.0.1 ad.fido.net
127.0.0.1 ad.fragzone.se
127.0.0.1 ad.free6.com
127.0.0.1 ad.grafika.cz
127.0.0.1 ad.harmony-central.com
127.0.0.1 ad.hbv.de
127.0.0.1 ad.howstuffworks.com
127.0.0.1 ad.hyena.cz
127.0.0.1 ad.iinfo.cz
127.0.0.1 ad.ilse.nl
127.0.0.1 ad.img.yahoo.co.kr
127.0.0.1 ad.infoseek.com
127.0.0.1 ad.investopedia.com
127.0.0.1 ad.ir.ru
127.0.0.1 ad.itmedia.co.jp
127.0.0.1 ad.jetsoftware.com
127.0.0.1 ad.keenspace.com
127.0.0.1 ad.krutilka.ru
127.0.0.1 ad.leadcrunch.com
127.0.0.1 ad.linx.cz
127.0.0.1 ad.liveinternet.ru
127.0.0.1 ad.lupa.cz
127.0.0.1 ad.mediastorm.hu
127.0.0.1 ad.mgd.de
127.0.0.1 ad.moscowtimes.ru
127.0.0.1 ad.musicmatch.com
127.0.0.1 ad.mwizard.net
127.0.0.1 ad.nachtagenten.de
127.0.0.1 ad.nozonedata.com
127.0.0.1 ad.nrk.no
127.0.0.1 ad.pbs.bb.ru
127.0.0.1 ad.playground.ru
127.0.0.1 ad.preferances.com
127.0.0.1 ad.rambler.ru
127.0.0.1 ad.reunion.com
127.0.0.1 ad.seznam.cz
127.0.0.1 ad.simgames.net
127.0.0.1 ad.spieletips.de
127.0.0.1 ad.suprnova.org
127.0.0.1 ad.surfsecret.com
127.0.0.1 ad.sweclockers.com
127.0.0.1 ad.t2t2.com
127.0.0.1 ad.tbn.ru
127.0.0.1 ad.tiscali.com
127.0.0.1 ad.tisnet.net.tw
127.0.0.1 ad.tomshardware.com
127.0.0.1 ad.top50.to
127.0.0.1 ad.tv2.no
127.0.0.1 ad.tweakpc.de
127.0.0.1 ad.uk.tangozebra.com
127.0.0.1 ad.uol.com.br
127.0.0.1 ad.usatoday.com
127.0.0.1 ad.way.cz
127.0.0.1 ad.wz.cz
127.0.0.1 ad.yadro.ru
127.0.0.1 ad.yieldmanager.com
127.0.0.1 ad.yourmedia.com
127.0.0.1 ad01.mediacorpsingapore.com
127.0.0.1 ad1.emediate.dk
127.0.0.1 ad1.gamezone.com
127.0.0.1 ad1.hardware.no
127.0.0.1 ad1.kde.cz
127.0.0.1 ad1.lbe.ru
127.0.0.1 ad1.outpost.com
127.0.0.1 ad1.zendmedia.com
127.0.0.1 ad2.atlas.cz
127.0.0.1 ad2.bb.ru
127.0.0.1 ad2.insitemedia.hu
127.0.0.1 ad2.lbe.ru
127.0.0.1 ad2.linx.cz
127.0.0.1 ad2.linxcz.cz
127.0.0.1 ad2.lupa.cz
127.0.0.1 ad2.mamma.com
127.0.0.1 ad2.seznam.cz
127.0.0.1 ad2.tisnet.net.tw
127.0.0.1 ad3.tisnet.net.tw
127.0.0.1 ad4.atlas.cz
127.0.0.1 ad4.tisnet.net.tw
127.0.0.1 ad41.atlas.cz
127.0.0.1 ad4ex.com
127.0.0.1 adbanner.ro
127.0.0.1 adboost.de.vu
127.0.0.1 adbot.com
127.0.0.1 adbot.theonion.com
127.0.0.1 adbrite.com
127.0.0.1 adbureau.net
127.0.0.1 adbutler.com
127.0.0.1 adbutler.de
127.0.0.1 adcell.de
127.0.0.1 adcenter.mdf.se
127.0.0.1 adcenter.net
127.0.0.1 adcentriconline.com
127.0.0.1 adcept.net
127.0.0.1 adclick.com
127.0.0.1 adclick.gamespy.com
127.0.0.1 adclick.mint.se
127.0.0.1 adclick.ro
127.0.0.1 adclient.rottentomatoes.com
127.0.0.1 adclient1.tucows.com
127.0.0.1 adcomplete.com
127.0.0.1 adcontent.gamespy.com
127.0.0.1 adcontroller.unicast.com
127.0.0.1 adcreative.tribuneinteractive.com
127.0.0.1 adcycle.com
127.0.0.1 adcycle.icpeurope.net
127.0.0.1 addcontrol.net
127.0.0.1 addesktop.com
127.0.0.1 addfreestats.com
127.0.0.1 addme.com
127.0.0.1 addynamix.com
127.0.0.1 adengage.com
127.0.0.1 adext.inkclub.com
127.0.0.1 adfarm.mediaplex.com
127.0.0.1 adfiles.api.no
127.0.0.1 adflight.com
127.0.0.1 adfly.com
127.0.0.1 adhostcenter.com
127.0.0.1 adi.mainichi.co.jp
127.0.0.1 adimage.asiaone.com.sg
127.0.0.1 adimages.been.com
127.0.0.1 adimages.carsoup.com
127.0.0.1 adimages.go.com
127.0.0.1 adimages.homestore.com
127.0.0.1 adimages.sanomawsoy.fi
127.0.0.1 adimg.cnet.com
127.0.0.1 adimg.com.com
127.0.0.1 adimg1.chosun.com
127.0.0.1 adimgs.sapo.pt
127.0.0.1 adincl.gopher.com
127.0.0.1 adition.de
127.0.0.1 adition.net
127.0.0.1 adjuggler.yourdictionary.com
127.0.0.1 adlegend.com
127.0.0.1 adlink.de
127.0.0.1 adlog.com.com
127.0.0.1 adlogix.net
127.0.0.1 adm.ad.asap-asp.net
127.0.0.1 adman.freeze.com
127.0.0.1 admanagement.ch
127.0.0.1 admanager.beweb.com
127.0.0.1 admanager.btopenworld.com
127.0.0.1 admanager.carsoup.com
127.0.0.1 admanager.persianblog.com
127.0.0.1 admaximize.com
127.0.0.1 admedia.ro
127.0.0.1 admeta.com
127.0.0.1 admex.com
127.0.0.1 adminder.com
127.0.0.1 adminshop.com
127.0.0.1 admonitor.com
127.0.0.1 admonitor.net
127.0.0.1 admotion.com.ar
127.0.0.1 adnet.biz
127.0.0.1 adnews.maddog2000.de
127.0.0.1 ado.internet.cz
127.0.0.1 adorigin.com
127.0.0.1 adpepper.dk
127.0.0.1 adpick.switchboard.com
127.0.0.1 adprofile.net
127.0.0.1 adprojekt.pl
127.0.0.1 adpush.dreamscape.com
127.0.0.1 adq.nextag.com
127.0.0.1 adremedy.com
127.0.0.1 adremote.pathfinder.com
127.0.0.1 adrenaline.cz
127.0.0.1 adrenalinesk.sk
127.0.0.1 adreporting.com
127.0.0.1 adres.internet.com
127.0.0.1 adrevolver.com
127.0.0.1 adrevolver.holzmannverlag.de
127.0.0.1 adriver.ru
127.0.0.1 adroar.com
127.0.0.1 adrotate.de
127.0.0.1 adrotator.net
127.0.0.1 ads-205.quarterserver.de
127.0.0.1 ads-de.spray.net
127.0.0.1 ads.100asians.com
127.0.0.1 ads.5ci.lt
127.0.0.1 ads.aceweb.net
127.0.0.1 ads.adshareware.net
127.0.0.1 ads.adultfriendfinder.com
127.0.0.1 ads.advance.net
127.0.0.1 ads.adverline.com
127.0.0.1 ads.affiliates.match.com
127.0.0.1 ads.allsites.com
127.0.0.1 ads.alwayson-network.com
127.0.0.1 ads.amazingmedia.com
127.0.0.1 ads.amdmb.com
127.0.0.1 ads.aol.com
127.0.0.1 ads.as4x.tmcs.net
127.0.0.1 ads.asia1.com.sg
127.0.0.1 ads.asiafriendfinder.com
127.0.0.1 ads.aspalliance.com
127.0.0.1 ads.battle.net
127.0.0.1 ads.belointeractive.com
127.0.0.1 ads.berlinonline.de
127.0.0.1 ads.betanews.com
127.0.0.1 ads.bfast.com
127.0.0.1 ads.bigcitytools.com
127.0.0.1 ads.bigfoot.com
127.0.0.1 ads.billiton.de
127.0.0.1 ads.bitsonthewire.com
127.0.0.1 ads.blick.ch
127.0.0.1 ads.bloomberg.com
127.0.0.1 ads.bluemountain.com
127.0.0.1 ads.box.sk
127.0.0.1 ads.businessweek.com
127.0.0.1 ads.canalblog.com
127.0.0.1 ads.canoe.ca
127.0.0.1 ads.cavello.com
127.0.0.1 ads.cbc.ca
127.0.0.1 ads.cdfreaks.com
127.0.0.1 ads.centraliprom.com
127.0.0.1 ads.cgnetworks.com
127.0.0.1 ads.channel4.com
127.0.0.1 ads.cimedia.com
127.0.0.1 ads.clearchannel.com
127.0.0.1 ads.collegclub.com
127.0.0.1 ads.com.com
127.0.0.1 ads.currantbun.com
127.0.0.1 ads.cyberfight.ru
127.0.0.1 ads.cybersales.cz
127.0.0.1 ads.danworld.net
127.0.0.1 ads.datingyes.com
127.0.0.1 ads.dbforums.com
127.0.0.1 ads.ddj.com
127.0.0.1 ads.deltha.hu
127.0.0.1 ads.dennisnet.co.uk
127.0.0.1 ads.desmoinesregister.com
127.0.0.1 ads.detelefoongids.nl
127.0.0.1 ads.developershed.com
127.0.0.1 ads.deviantart.com
127.0.0.1 ads.digitalmedianet.com
127.0.0.1 ads.digitalpoint.com
127.0.0.1 ads.directionsmag.com
127.0.0.1 ads.discovery.com
127.0.0.1 ads.dk
127.0.0.1 ads.dmk-internet.com
127.0.0.1 ads.e-planning.net
127.0.0.1 ads.edbindex.dk
127.0.0.1 ads.einmedia.com
127.0.0.1 ads.erotism.com
127.0.0.1 ads.esmas.com
127.0.0.1 ads.eu.msn.com
127.0.0.1 ads.eudora.com
127.0.0.1 ads.exhedra.com
127.0.0.1 ads.ezboard.com
127.0.0.1 ads.fairfax.com.au
127.0.0.1 ads.filmup.com
127.0.0.1 ads.firingsquad.com
127.0.0.1 ads.flooble.com
127.0.0.1 ads.floridatoday.com
127.0.0.1 ads.fool.com
127.0.0.1 ads.forbes.com
127.0.0.1 ads.forbes.net
127.0.0.1 ads.forium.de
127.0.0.1 ads.fortunecity.com
127.0.0.1 ads.foxkidseurope.net
127.0.0.1 ads.freecity.de
127.0.0.1 ads.freeze.com
127.0.0.1 ads.friendtest.com
127.0.0.1 ads.ft.com
127.0.0.1 ads.g4techtv.com
127.0.0.1 ads.game.net
127.0.0.1 ads.gamecity.net
127.0.0.1 ads.gamecopyworld.no
127.0.0.1 ads.gameforgeads.de
127.0.0.1 ads.gamershell.com
127.0.0.1 ads.gamespy.com
127.0.0.1 ads.gamespyid.com
127.0.0.1 ads.gamigo.de
127.0.0.1 ads.gawker.com
127.0.0.1 ads.gettools.com
127.0.0.1 ads.globeandmail.com
127.0.0.1 ads.gotfrag.com
127.0.0.1 ads.goyk.com
127.0.0.1 ads.grindinggears.com
127.0.0.1 ads.guardian.co.uk
127.0.0.1 ads.guardianunlimited.co.uk
127.0.0.1 ads.hbv.de
127.0.0.1 ads.heartlight.org
127.0.0.1 ads.herald-sun.com
127.0.0.1 ads.hollywood.com
127.0.0.1 ads.humorbua.no
127.0.0.1 ads.iafrica.com
127.0.0.1 ads.iboost.com
127.0.0.1 ads.icq.com
127.0.0.1 ads.ign.com
127.0.0.1 ads.imdb.com
127.0.0.1 ads.img.co.za
127.0.0.1 ads.indya.com
127.0.0.1 ads.indystar.com
127.0.0.1 ads.inetfast.com
127.0.0.1 ads.inetinteractive.com
127.0.0.1 ads.infi.net
127.0.0.1 ads.infospace.com
127.0.0.1 ads.internic.co.il
127.0.0.1 ads.inthemix.com.au
127.0.0.1 ads.ipowerweb.com
127.0.0.1 ads.isoftmarketing.com
127.0.0.1 ads.itv.com
127.0.0.1 ads.iwon.com
127.0.0.1 ads.jimworld.com
127.0.0.1 ads.jpost.com
127.0.0.1 ads.jubii.dk
127.0.0.1 ads.katz.ws
127.0.0.1 ads.kinobox.cz
127.0.0.1 ads.krawall.de
127.0.0.1 ads.leo.org
127.0.0.1 ads.linuxjournal.com
127.0.0.1 ads.linuxquestions.org
127.0.0.1 ads.linuxsecurity.com
127.0.0.1 ads.lnkworld.com
127.0.0.1 ads.localnow.com
127.0.0.1 ads.lycos-europe.com
127.0.0.1 ads.lycos.com
127.0.0.1 ads.madison.com
127.0.0.1 ads.mariuana.it
127.0.0.1 ads.mcafee.com
127.0.0.1 ads.mediaodyssey.com
127.0.0.1 ads.mediaturf.net
127.0.0.1 ads.metropol.dk
127.0.0.1 ads.mgnetwork.com
127.0.0.1 ads.monster.com
127.0.0.1 ads.msn.com
127.0.0.1 ads.multimania.lycos.fr
127.0.0.1 ads.musiccity.com
127.0.0.1 ads.myguysolutions.com
127.0.0.1 ads.mysimon.com
127.0.0.1 ads.nandomedia.com
127.0.0.1 ads.nationalreview.com
127.0.0.1 ads.neoseeker.com
127.0.0.1 ads.neowin.net
127.0.0.1 ads.netmechanic.com
127.0.0.1 ads.newcity.com
127.0.0.1 ads.newcitynet.com
127.0.0.1 ads.newdream.net
127.0.0.1 ads.newmedia.cz
127.0.0.1 ads.newsint.co.uk
127.0.0.1 ads.newsobserver.com
127.0.0.1 ads.newsquest.co.uk
127.0.0.1 ads.newtimes.com
127.0.0.1 ads.ngenuity.com
127.0.0.1 ads.ninemsn.com.au
127.0.0.1 ads.nola.com
127.0.0.1 ads.nordichardware.se
127.0.0.1 ads.ntadvice.com
127.0.0.1 ads.nwsource.com
127.0.0.1 ads.nyi.net
127.0.0.1 ads.nyjournalnews.com
127.0.0.1 ads.nypost.com
127.0.0.1 ads.nytimes.com
127.0.0.1 ads.nzcity.co.nz
127.0.0.1 ads.ole.com
127.0.0.1 ads.oneplace.com
127.0.0.1 ads.onlineguiden.com
127.0.0.1 ads.optusnet.com.au
127.0.0.1 ads.orsm.net
127.0.0.1 ads.osdn.com
127.0.0.1 ads.osnews.com
127.0.0.1 ads.ourbrisbane.com
127.0.0.1 ads.overclockers.at
127.0.0.1 ads.pcper.com
127.0.0.1 ads.peel.com
127.0.0.1 ads.phparena.net
127.0.0.1 ads.phpclasses.org
127.0.0.1 ads.pittsburghlive.com
127.0.0.1 ads.planet.nl
127.0.0.1 ads.pni.com
127.0.0.1 ads.powweb.com
127.0.0.1 ads.premiumnetwork.com
127.0.0.1 ads.primeinteractive.net
127.0.0.1 ads.prisacom.com
127.0.0.1 ads.pro-market.net
127.0.0.1 ads.realcities.com
127.0.0.1 ads.realmedia.de
127.0.0.1 ads.recoletos.es
127.0.0.1 ads.rediff.com
127.0.0.1 ads.rivals.net
127.0.0.1 ads.rottentomatoes.com
127.0.0.1 ads.rp-online.de
127.0.0.1 ads.rpgdot.com
127.0.0.1 ads.rpgui.com
127.0.0.1 ads.satyamonline.com
127.0.0.1 ads.savannahnow.com
127.0.0.1 ads.scifi.com
127.0.0.1 ads.sexplanets.com
127.0.0.1 ads.shareprovider.com
127.0.0.1 ads.sify.com
127.0.0.1 ads.simtel.net
127.0.0.1 ads.smartclick.com
127.0.0.1 ads.softwareoutfit.com
127.0.0.1 ads.space.com
127.0.0.1 ads.sptimes.com
127.0.0.1 ads.stationplay.com
127.0.0.1 ads.stileproject.com
127.0.0.1 ads.storagereview.net
127.0.0.1 ads.stratics.com
127.0.0.1 ads.switchboard.com
127.0.0.1 ads.techtv.com
127.0.0.1 ads.telegraaf.nl
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10 reasons why PCs crash

Fatal error: the system has become unstable or is busy," it says. "Enter to return to Windows or press Control-Alt-Delete to restart your computer. If you do this you will lose any unsaved information in all open applications."

You have just been struck by the Blue Screen of Death. Anyone who uses Mcft Windows will be familiar with this. What can you do? More importantly, how can you prevent it happening?

1 Hardware conflict

The number one reason why Windows crashes is hardware conflict. Each hardware device communicates to other devices through an interrupt request channel (IRQ). These are supposed to be unique for each device.

For example, a printer usually connects internally on IRQ 7. The keyboard usually uses IRQ 1 and the floppy disk drive IRQ 6. Each device will try to hog a single IRQ for itself.

If there are a lot of devices, or if they are not installed properly, two of them may end up sharing the same IRQ number. When the user tries to use both devices at the same time, a crash can happen. The way to check if your computer has a hardware conflict is through the following route:

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-System-Device Manager.

Often if a device has a problem a yellow '!' appears next to its description in the Device Manager. Highlight Computer (in the Device Manager) and press Properties to see the IRQ numbers used by your computer. If the IRQ number appears twice, two devices may be using it.

Sometimes a device might share an IRQ with something described as 'IRQ holder for PCI steering'. This can be ignored. The best way to fix this problem is to remove the problem device and reinstall it.

Sometimes you may have to find more recent drivers on the internet to make the device function properly. A good resource is www.driverguide.com. If the device is a soundcard, or a modem, it can often be fixed by moving it to a different slot on the motherboard (be careful about opening your computer, as you may void the warranty).

When working inside a computer you should switch it off, unplug the mains lead and touch an unpainted metal surface to discharge any static electricity.

To be fair to Mcft, the problem with IRQ numbers is not of its making. It is a legacy problem going back to the first PC designs using the IBM 8086 chip. Initially there were only eight IRQs. Today there are 16 IRQs in a PC. It is easy to run out of them. There are plans to increase the number of IRQs in future designs.

2 Bad Ram

Ram (random-access memory) problems might bring on the blue screen of death with a message saying Fatal Exception Error. A fatal error indicates a serious hardware problem. Sometimes it may mean a part is damaged and will need replacing.

But a fatal error caused by Ram might be caused by a mismatch of chips. For example, mixing 70-nanosecond (70ns) Ram with 60ns Ram will usually force the computer to run all the Ram at the slower speed. This will often crash the machine if the Ram is overworked.

One way around this problem is to enter the BIOS settings and increase the wait state of the Ram. This can make it more stable. Another way to troubleshoot a suspected Ram problem is to rearrange the Ram chips on the motherboard, or take some of them out. Then try to repeat the circumstances that caused the crash. When handling Ram try not to touch the gold connections, as they can be easily damaged.

Parity error messages also refer to Ram. Modern Ram chips are either parity (ECC) or non parity (non-ECC). It is best not to mix the two types, as this can be a cause of trouble.

EMM386 error messages refer to memory problems but may not be connected to bad Ram. This may be due to free memory problems often linked to old Dos-based programmes.

3 BIOS settings

Every motherboard is supplied with a range of chipset settings that are decided in the factory. A common way to access these settings is to press the F2 or delete button during the first few seconds of a boot-up.

Once inside the BIOS, great care should be taken. It is a good idea to write down on a piece of paper all the settings that appear on the screen. That way, if you change something and the computer becomes more unstable, you will know what settings to revert to.

A common BIOS error concerns the CAS latency. This refers to the Ram. Older EDO (extended data out) Ram has a CAS latency of 3. Newer SDRam has a CAS latency of 2. Setting the wrong figure can cause the Ram to lock up and freeze the computer's display.

Mcft Windows is better at allocating IRQ numbers than any BIOS. If possible set the IRQ numbers to Auto in the BIOS. This will allow Windows to allocate the IRQ numbers (make sure the BIOS setting for Plug and Play OS is switched to 'yes' to allow Windows to do this.).

4 Hard disk drives

After a few weeks, the information on a hard disk drive starts to become piecemeal or fragmented. It is a good idea to defragment the hard disk every week or so, to prevent the disk from causing a screen freeze. Go to

* Start-Programs-Accessories-System Tools-Disk Defragmenter

This will start the procedure. You will be unable to write data to the hard drive (to save it) while the disk is defragmenting, so it is a good idea to schedule the procedure for a period of inactivity using the Task Scheduler.

The Task Scheduler should be one of the small icons on the bottom right of the Windows opening page (the desktop).

Some lockups and screen freezes caused by hard disk problems can be solved by reducing the read-ahead optimisation. This can be adjusted by going to

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-System Icon-Performance-File System-Hard Disk.

Hard disks will slow down and crash if they are too full. Do some housekeeping on your hard drive every few months and free some space on it. Open the Windows folder on the C drive and find the Temporary Internet Files folder. Deleting the contents (not the folder) can free a lot of space.

Empty the Recycle Bin every week to free more space. Hard disk drives should be scanned every week for errors or bad sectors. Go to

* Start-Programs-Accessories-System Tools-ScanDisk

Otherwise assign the Task Scheduler to perform this operation at night when the computer is not in use.

5 Fatal OE exceptions and VXD errors

Fatal OE exception errors and VXD errors are often caused by video card problems.

These can often be resolved easily by reducing the resolution of the video display. Go to

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-Display-Settings

Here you should slide the screen area bar to the left. Take a look at the colour settings on the left of that window. For most desktops, high colour 16-bit depth is adequate.

If the screen freezes or you experience system lockups it might be due to the video card. Make sure it does not have a hardware conflict. Go to

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-System-Device Manager

Here, select the + beside Display Adapter. A line of text describing your video card should appear. Select it (make it blue) and press properties. Then select Resources and select each line in the window. Look for a message that says No Conflicts.

If you have video card hardware conflict, you will see it here. Be careful at this point and make a note of everything you do in case you make things worse.

The way to resolve a hardware conflict is to uncheck the Use Automatic Settings box and hit the Change Settings button. You are searching for a setting that will display a No Conflicts message.

Another useful way to resolve video problems is to go to

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-System-Performance-Graphics

Here you should move the Hardware Acceleration slider to the left. As ever, the most common cause of problems relating to graphics cards is old or faulty drivers (a driver is a small piece of software used by a computer to communicate with a device).

Look up your video card's manufacturer on the internet and search for the most recent drivers for it.

6 Viruses

Often the first sign of a virus infection is instability. Some viruses erase the boot sector of a hard drive, making it impossible to start. This is why it is a good idea to create a Windows start-up disk. Go to

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-Add/Remove Programs

Here, look for the Start Up Disk tab. Virus protection requires constant vigilance.

A virus scanner requires a list of virus signatures in order to be able to identify viruses. These signatures are stored in a DAT file. DAT files should be updated weekly from the website of your antivirus software manufacturer.

An excellent antivirus programme is McAfee VirusScan by Network Associates ( www.nai.com). Another is Norton AntiVirus 2000, made by Symantec ( www.symantec.com).

7 Printers

The action of sending a document to print creates a bigger file, often called a postscript file.

Printers have only a small amount of memory, called a buffer. This can be easily overloaded. Printing a document also uses a considerable amount of CPU power. This will also slow down the computer's performance.

If the printer is trying to print unusual characters, these might not be recognised, and can crash the computer. Sometimes printers will not recover from a crash because of confusion in the buffer. A good way to clear the buffer is to unplug the printer for ten seconds. Booting up from a powerless state, also called a cold boot, will restore the printer's default settings and you may be able to carry on.

8 Software

A common cause of computer crash is faulty or badly-installed software. Often the problem can be cured by uninstalling the software and then reinstalling it. Use Norton Uninstall or Uninstall Shield to remove an application from your system properly. This will also remove references to the programme in the System Registry and leaves the way clear for a completely fresh copy.

The System Registry can be corrupted by old references to obsolete software that you thought was uninstalled. Use Reg Cleaner by Jouni Vuorio to clean up the System Registry and remove obsolete entries. It works on Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 98 SE (Second Edition), Windows Millennium Edition (ME), NT4 and Windows 2000.

Read the instructions and use it carefully so you don't do permanent damage to the Registry. If the Registry is damaged you will have to reinstall your operating system. Reg Cleaner can be obtained from www.jv16.org

Often a Windows problem can be resolved by entering Safe Mode. This can be done during start-up. When you see the message "Starting Windows" press F4. This should take you into Safe Mode.

Safe Mode loads a minimum of drivers. It allows you to find and fix problems that prevent Windows from loading properly.

Sometimes installing Windows is difficult because of unsuitable BIOS settings. If you keep getting SUWIN error messages (Windows setup) during the Windows installation, then try entering the BIOS and disabling the CPU internal cache. Try to disable the Level 2 (L2) cache if that doesn't work.

Remember to restore all the BIOS settings back to their former settings following installation.

9 Overheating

Central processing units (CPUs) are usually equipped with fans to keep them cool. If the fan fails or if the CPU gets old it may start to overheat and generate a particular kind of error called a kernel error. This is a common problem in chips that have been overclocked to operate at higher speeds than they are supposed to.

One remedy is to get a bigger better fan and install it on top of the CPU. Specialist cooling fans/heatsinks are available from www.computernerd.com or www.coolit.com

CPU problems can often be fixed by disabling the CPU internal cache in the BIOS. This will make the machine run more slowly, but it should also be more stable.

10 Power supply problems

With all the new construction going on around the country the steady supply of electricity has become disrupted. A power surge or spike can crash a computer as easily as a power cut.

If this has become a nuisance for you then consider buying a uninterrupted power supply (UPS). This will give you a clean power supply when there is electricity, and it will give you a few minutes to perform a controlled shutdown in case of a power cut.

It is a good investment if your data are critical, because a power cut will cause any unsaved data to be lost.

A Guide to Internet Security: Becoming an Uebercracker

This is a paper will be broken into two parts, one showing 15 easy steps
to becoming a uebercracker and the next part showing how to become a
ueberadmin and how to stop a uebercracker. A uebercracker is a term phrased
by Dan Farmer to refer to some elite (cr/h)acker that is practically
impossible to keep out of the networks.

Here's the steps to becoming a uebercracker.

Step 1. Relax and remain calm. Remember YOU are a Uebercracker.

Step 2. If you know a little Unix, you are way ahead of the crowd and skip
past step 3.

Step 3. You may want to buy Unix manual or book to let you know what
ls,cd,cat does.

Step 4. Read Usenet for the following groups: alt.irc, alt.security,
comp.security.unix. Subscribe to Phrack@well.sf.ca.us to get a background
in uebercracker culture.

Step 5. Ask on alt.irc how to get and compile the latest IRC client and
connect to IRC.

Step 6. Once on IRC, join the #hack channel. (Whew, you are half-way
there!)

Step 7. Now, sit on #hack and send messages to everyone in the channel
saying "Hi, Whats up?". Be obnoxious to anyone else that joins and asks
questions like "Why cant I join #warez?"

Step 8. (Important Step) Send private messages to everyone asking for new
bugs or holes. Here's a good pointer, look around your system for binary
programs suid root (look in Unix manual from step 3 if confused). After
finding a suid root binary, (ie. su, chfn, syslog), tell people you have a
new bug in that program and you wrote a script for it. If they ask how it
works, tell them they are "layme". Remember, YOU are a UeberCracker. Ask
them to trade for their get-root scripts.

Step 9. Make them send you some scripts before you send some garbage file
(ie. a big core file). Tell them it is encrypted or it was messed up and
you need to upload your script again.

Step 10. Spend a week grabbing all the scripts you can. (Dont forget to be
obnoxious on #hack otherwise people will look down on you and not give you
anything.)

Step 11. Hopefully you will now have atleast one or two scripts that get
you root on most Unixes. Grab root on your local machines, read your
admin's mail, or even other user's mail, even rm log files and whatever
temps you. (look in Unix manual from step 3 if confused).

Step 12. A good test for true uebercrackerness is to be able to fake mail.
Ask other uebercrackers how to fake mail (because they have had to pass the
same test). Email your admin how "layme" he is and how you got root and how
you erased his files, and have it appear coming from satan@evil.com.

Step 13. Now, to pass into supreme eliteness of uebercrackerness, you brag
about your exploits on #hack to everyone. (Make up stuff, Remember, YOU are
a uebercracker.)

Step 14. Wait a few months and have all your notes, etc ready in your room
for when the FBI, Secret Service, and other law enforcement agencies
confinscate your equipment. Call eff.org to complain how you were innocent
and how you accidently gotten someone else's account and only looked
because you were curious. (Whatever else that may help, throw at them.)

Step 15. Now for the true final supreme eliteness of all uebercrackers, you
go back to #hack and brag about how you were busted. YOU are finally a
true Uebercracker.


Now the next part of the paper is top secret. Please only pass to trusted
administrators and friends and even some trusted mailing lists, Usenet
groups, etc. (Make sure no one who is NOT in the inner circle of security
gets this.)

This is broken down on How to Become an UeberAdmin (otherwise know as a
security expert) and How to stop Uebercrackers.

Step 1. Read Unix manual ( a good idea for admins ).

Step 2. Very Important. chmod 700 rdist; chmod 644 /etc/utmp. Install
sendmail 8.6.4. You have probably stopped 60 percent of all Uebercrackers
now. Rdist scripts is among the favorites for getting root by
uebercrackers.

Step 3. Okay, maybe you want to actually secure your machine from the
elite Uebercrackers who can break into any site on Internet.

Step 4. Set up your firewall to block rpc/nfs/ip-forwarding/src routing
packets. (This only applies to advanced admins who have control of the
router, but this will stop 90% of all uebercrackers from attempting your
site.)

Step 5. Apply all CERT and vendor patches to all of your machines. You have
just now killed 95% of all uebercrackers.

Step 6. Run a good password cracker to find open accounts and close them.
Run tripwire after making sure your binaries are untouched. Run tcp_wrapper
to find if a uebercracker is knocking on your machines. Run ISS to make
sure that all your machines are reasonably secure as far as remote
configuration (ie. your NFS exports and anon FTP site.)

Step 7. If you have done all of the following, you will have stopped 99%
of all uebercrackers. Congrads! (Remember, You are the admin.)

Step 8. Now there is one percent of uebercrackers that have gained
knowledge from reading some security expert's mail (probably gained access
to his mail via NFS exports or the guest account. You know how it is, like
the mechanic that always has a broken car, or the plumber that has the
broken sink, the security expert usually has an open machine.)

Step 9. Here is the hard part is to try to convince these security experts
that they are not so above the average citizen and that by now giving out
their unknown (except for the uebercrackers) security bugs, it would be a
service to Internet. They do not have to post it on Usenet, but share
among many other trusted people and hopefully fixes will come about and
new pressure will be applied to vendors to come out with patches.

Step 10. If you have gained the confidence of enough security experts,
you will know be a looked upto as an elite security administrator that is
able to stop most uebercrackers. The final true test for being a ueberadmin
is to compile a IRC client, go onto #hack and log all the bragging and
help catch the uebercrackers. If a uebercracker does get into your system,
and he has used a new method you have never seen, you can probably tell
your other security admins and get half of the replies like - "That bug
been known for years, there just isn't any patches for it yet. Here's my
fix." and the other half of the replies will be like - "Wow. That is very
impressive. You have just moved up a big notch in my security circle."
VERY IMPORTANT HERE: If you see anyone in Usenet's security newsgroups
mention anything about that security hole, Flame him for discussing it
since it could bring down Internet and all Uebercrackers will now have it
and the million other reasons to keep everything secret about security.


Well, this paper has shown the finer details of security on Internet. It has
shown both sides of the coin. Three points I would like to make that would
probably clean up most of the security problems on Internet are as the
following:

1. Vendors need to make security a little higher than zero in priority.
If most vendors shipped their Unixes already secure with most known bugs
that have been floating around since the Internet Worm (6 years ago) fixed
and patched, then most uebercrackers would be stuck as new machines get
added to Internet. (I believe Uebercracker is german for "lame copy-cat
that can get root with 3 year old bugs.") An interesting note is that
if you probably check the mail alias for "security@vendor.com", you will
find it points to /dev/null. Maybe with enough mail, it will overfill
/dev/null. (Look in manual if confused.)

2. Security experts giving up the attitude that they are above the normal
Internet user and try to give out information that could lead to pressure
by other admins to vendors to come out with fixes and patches. Most
security experts probably don't realize how far their information has
already spread.

3. And probably one of the more important points is just following the
steps I have outlined for Stopping a Uebercracker.


Resources for Security:
Many security advisories are available from anonymous ftp cert.org.
Ask archie to find tcp_wrapper, security programs. For more information
about ISS (Internet Security Scanner), email cklaus@shadow.net.

30 March, 2008

How to build your very own PC !!

Introduction

In this tutorial I will try an
teach you how to successfully build your own computer! There are many benefits
to building your own computer.


  1. You get hand's on experience learning how a computer works
  2. Its a hell of alot less expensive then buying one from a retailer
  3. Its a hell of alot more reliable than buying one from a retailer being that
    you hand select QUALITY parts and put it togethor yourself.
  4. You can do your own tech support no more relying on stupid Best Buy Tech's
    that don't know the difference between their ass and a hard disk jumper (don't
    worry I'll tell you what those are later)

Section #1 (What Your Going To Need)


Here we will discuss a list of the parts you need and the best place to
purchase them. If you want the best
prices on computer hardware you will
definitly want to look online. Unfortunatly (and for some of you very
fortunatly
if you know what I mean) this requires the use of a credit card.
Below is a general list of the devices you will
need...


  1. A Computer Case (Something To Put All The Computer Parts Togethor In)

    • Should only run you about 50 dollars
    • Beware the cheap ones with cheap power supplies they will die in a year

  2. A Mother Board (Everything Will Be Plugged Into The Mother Board)
  3. A Floppy Drive and a CDROM (Should Be Obvious)
  4. A Hard Disk (Come In Many Different Flavors and Quality Levels, Stores All
    The Information In Your Computer)
  5. A Video Card (Cheap Stuff, Its What Your Monitor Plugs Into)
  6. IDE Controller Ribbon
  7. Miscellaneous Accessories

Next we'll take a look at many of the different options you have when buying
these pieces of equipment. Your choice
may vary depending on which Operating
Systems you plan on running.


Section #2 (Which Brand And Model Should I
Buy?)


We'll lets start with your computer case and move all the way down to
Miscellaneous Accessories..


1. Computer Case


You will most certainly need an ATX style case with a quality power supply.
How do you tell? Well if the case
is only 15-20 bucks theres a pretty good
chance its a crappy power supply.


2. A Mother Board


I suggest a quality ASUS (ATX style to match your computer case) mother board
its up to you ask your friends.
I've had bad experiences personally with
FIC
mother boards.


3. A Floppy Drive and CDROM


Pretty inexpensive stuff, i'd suggest a Sony Floppy drive and a generic
CDROM. Doesn't make too much a difference if your
concerned about getting the
best price.


4. Hard Disks

Gets alittle tricky. If you want reliability,
high speed transfers, and are willing to run Windows I suggest a Western
Digital
or a Seagate ULTRA DMA-66. If your not to concerned with speed and
want to run a server with Unix i'd go with a Fujitsu or
a Western Digital.
Their farely inexpensive but only transfer in 33 megabit bursts as apposed to
the DMA-66 which transfer
in 33 megabit bursts. I don't believe Unix
currently supports ULTRA DMA-66, but don't quote me on that. Now there's an even
faster
transfer rate available via SCSI Hard Disk Controllers, but i'm not
about to go into setting up SCSI controllers in this tutorial.
For now we
will stick with IDE Hard Disk controllers.


5. Video Cards


Video cards are cheap and if your not a gamer a plain ole gener Cirrus Logic
or STB video card will do fine.


6. IDE Controller Ribbon


You'll need 2 different kinds of IDE Ribbon 2 40 pins for your CDROM and Hard
Disk and Another with less pins for your floppy.
You can buy these at any
local computer store or order them off the web.


7. Miscellaneous Stuff


You may be interested in adding a sound card, ethernet card, and/or 3DFX card
to your system. These are relatively easy to do and
I will explain how to add
card's to your mother board later.


Section #3 (Where do I buy all this crap!?)


Well if your looking for the best prices online for computer hardware (and
this is my unbiast opinion) i'd suggest going to
http://www.pricewatch.com
again ask your friends maybe they know a better place. Pricewatch.com researchs
the best prices
on computer hardware.


Section #4 (Lets Assemble!)


This next part is very important so read carefully...



  1. First things first get yourself a clean desk to work on.



  2. Place your ATX stlye computer case on the desk and slide/lift the top off.
    Inside should be a bunch of wires coming out
    of the power supply in the back
    and a bunch of wires coming out near the face of the box.



  3. The next thing your going to want to do is place your mother board inside the
    case and fasten it in. Their might be
    metal coverings covering the holes in
    the computer case were the parralel ports and serial ports on the mother
    board
    should poke through, go ahead and poke those out with a screw drive so
    you can fit the mother board in snuggly. Every
    Case fastens mother boards in
    different ways. Some use plastic pegs, some use metal screws. It will hopefully
    be obvious
    which you have to use.



  4. #4 Once the mother board is mounted properly you will need to fasten the
    floppy drive, and cdrom into the computer case.
    All computer cases store
    floppy drives differently there maybe a slide out container that you screw them
    into. You'll
    have to make sure that the the floppy drive is right side up
    (duh!) and that the pins are facing towards the back of the
    computer.
    Installing the CDROM is pretty much the same in all computer cases. Some
    mounting rails should have come
    with your mother board. You need to fasten
    those to the sides of the CDROM and you should be able to slide it right
    in
    to one of the top bays.



  5. Insert your Video Card. There are presently about 3 differnet forms of slots
    on your mother board. PCI, ISA, and AGP.
    Video Cards are presently made for
    all 3 of them. AGP stands for "Accelrated Graphics Port" Video Cards made for
    this
    slot are generally more high tech/performance. PCI's work and so do ISA
    (Althoug ISA is more Old School). Gee how
    do I tell the difference? Well AGP
    slots more than likely is the only small, brown, slot on your mother board.
    PCI
    you probably have the most of these their white and little longer than
    AGP. ISA, these are longggg and black, ugly.
    Insert your Video Card and snug
    it in there firmly. Don't force it (duh).



  6. Time for that evil Hard Disk installation. We'll Hit hooking up the power
    supplies and Installing the Hard Disk at the
    same time just for fun. Insert
    the Hard Disk In a very much similar way to the way you inserted the floppy
    disk. But
    Before you do make sure that the jumper settings are correct on the
    back of Har Disk. Most hard disks are shipped in
    single mode, but if you want
    to run multiple hard disks (which we won't discuss) you need to set the jumpers
    differently.
    Jumpers are little metal prongs connected with little jumpers
    that complete a connection. You figure it out. Anyway
    you got your hard disk
    in now its time to hook up the power supplies. The hard disk and the CDROM have
    similar power supp
    lies. 3 or 4 prong. Hook those funny looking cords coming
    out of the back of the power supply into your CDROM and Hard
    Disk. Theres a
    smaller one that hooks into your floppy it should be obvious. Theres a big power
    supply (the biggest one
    in the lot usually made of white plastic) It fits
    into a slot on your mother board, it is the main power supply to your
    mother
    board. Its kind of tricky to get in so be careful.



  7. Now that you have your Power Supplies hooked up you'll need to connect your
    Periphrials to your Mother Board. Use the IDE
    Controller Ribbon I know you
    all have. Hey one end goes to your CDROM (make sure the red line on the ribbon
    "pin 1" is
    matched up with the first pin on the back of your CDROM) and the
    other end goes to your mother board (same deal). The
    same goes for your hard
    disk and yoru floppy. Figure it out its not that difficult. You'll know you did
    something wrong
    when you get a floppy disk fail on boot.



  8. Finishing touches. Don't forget to connect those nasty wires coming out from
    behind the face of your computer case to
    your mother board. They control the
    on, off, reset, hard disk activity, and power switch. Every mother board is
    different
    so i hope you have a manual with your mother board. Most specify
    with 2 or 3 character paraphrases that make no sense.
    For Example "PWR SWT" =
    Power Switch "RST SWT" = Reset Switch. Or even more vague than that.


Section #5 (Testing 1, 2, 3)


Ok your ready to give it a whirl, you'll need to get in your system bios. The
"DEL" key should usually get you in.
Get it to autodetect your hard disk.
Accept the Setting and Save your Configurations. Install Your OS and your ready
to go.
That easy!! Ha! you'll prolly have lots of trouble theres a million
resources online to help you. Get to it.

CD-ROM/CD-Rewritable Installation Guide

Table of Contents:

Intro
I.Supplies needed and costs
II.Steps before installation and preparation
III.The Installation of the CD-ROM drive
Adding a CD-ROM drive(Burner,DVD, or any CD-ROM)
Upgrading a existing CD-ROM
IV.Conclusion
V.Tools and Utilities
Contact Info


Intro

So you want to upgrade your CD-ROM drive or put in a cd burner without having to pay $50 to install it? or just want to install it on a machine that does not have one? Well you came to the right place. In this tutorial I will provide you with information on installing a new CD-ROM drive. And for more hardware installation guides visit Blacksun Research Facility.

I.Supplies needed and costs

Supplies you need will be:

A CD-ROM drive ($40-$300 depending on if its a Burner or DVD)
Phillips Screwdriver (Should have)
Needlenose Pliers (Should have)
Anti-static wrist strap(optional)


II.Steps before installation and preparation

Before you start digging around in your computer...you are going to want to get everything you need at hand. Clear a space on a desk or table and unplug your computer and carry the case where it is well lighted. Remove the screws holding the out shell of your case, and remove out shell. Now you should be able to see the motherboard and all the insides. So you know, the box in the top left with red, yellow, and black cables coming out is the power supply. At the end of those wires is a connecter with 4 pin holes. Then the ribbons you see are what transfer the data from the drive to the motherboard. Look at your existing setup and look how they connect to the floppy drive etc.

III.The Installation of the CD-ROM drive (Section A, Section B)

Follow the following sections on what tasks you want to accomplish.

Section A: If you are adding a CD-ROM drive(Burner,DVD, or any CD-ROM)
Section B: If you are upgrading a existing CD-ROM
Section A:Adding a CD-ROM drive(Burner,DVD, or any CD-ROM)

Remove the face plate cover on your tower where your CD-ROM will be taking its place.
Set the jumper on the back of your new CD_ROM drive to slave if not already set. If there is no diagram refer to manufacturers website for settings.
Slide the drive in to the open slot in your case. But do not screw in the screws yet because you might need to slide it around.
Once your drive is in place look at the IDE ribbon connected to your hard drive and see if there are any free connectors to plug in to your CD-ROM. If there are not use the IDE ribbon that came with the drive and connect it to the CD-ROM (Note:That ribbon is how your CD-ROM drive communicates with your Motherboard.
Connect the audio cable(small cable almost like phone cord and jack) to your CD-ROM drive then connect the other to your Audio card. If you cantfind your audio card look for a small black jack which would fit the connector.(Note:This is only nessary if you want sound from your CD-ROM.
Now its time to connect your power supply connector to your CD-ROM drive. It is a cord that has yellow black and red wires with a connector on the end.
Once everything is connected, screw the drive into place and close up the case and reboot. If your running Windows 98 it should recognize it right away.
Test it out to make sure its working. Install Drivers for the CD-ROM if any came with it.


Section B:Upgrading a existing CD-ROM

Remove the existing hard drive by disconnecting all the cables and power supply.
Set the jumper on the back of your new CD_ROM drive to the same settings on your old CD-ROM drive.
Slide the drive in to the open slot in your case. But do not screw in the screws yet because you might need to slide it around.
Once your drive is in place look at the IDE ribbon connected to your hard drive and see if there are any free connectors to plug in to your CD-ROM. If there are not use the IDE ribbon that came with the drive and connect it to the CD-ROM (Note : That ribbon is how your CD-ROM drive communicates with your Motherboard.
Connect the audio cable(small cable almost like phone cord and jack) to your CD-ROM drive then connect the other to your Audio card. If you cant find your audio card look for a small black jack which would fit the connector.(Note:This is only nessary if you want sound from your CD-ROM.
Now its time to connect your power supply connector to your CD-ROM drive. It is a cord that has yellow black and red wires with a connector on the end.
Once everything is connected, screw the drive into place and close up the case and reboot. If your running Windows 98 it should recognize it right away.
Test it out to make sure its working. Install Drivers for the CD-ROM if any came with it.
IV.Conclusion

Now you will be saving money by installing hardware by yourself without having to pay $60 a hour labor cost at a computing store. As you learn more about computers you will soon realize that you will save lots of money on repairs if you can do them yourself. So I hope you enjoyed this and I hope it was helpful. Feel free to email me your questions/comments/anger. Visit Blacksun.box.sk for more of my hardware tutorials.

V.Tools and Utilities

CD Burning Utilities, Drivers, and more
--(http://www.download.com)

Installing a Hard Drive


Table of Contents:

Intro
I.Supplies needed and costs
II.Steps before installation and preparation
III.The Installation of the HD
IV.CMOS Check
V.Tools and Utilities
VI.Conclusion
VII.Contact Info

Intro

So your old hard drive is acting up? or just too small? Well you came to the right place. In this tutorial I will provide you with information on installing a new hard drive in addition to your old hard drive, and tell you how to upgrade and existing hard drive. Please follow the tutorial step by step and read it all carefully or you could end up loosing all your existing data. So enjoy this tutorial from Blacksun.box.sk. And for more hardware installation guides visit Blacksun Research Facility.

I.Supplies needed and costs

Supplies you need will be:

A Hard drive ($50-$250 depending on size)
Phillips Screwdriver (Should have)
Needlenose Pliers (Should have)
Anti-static wrist strap(optional)
II.Steps before installation and preparation

Before you start digging around in your computer...you are going to want to get everything you need at hand. If you are starting clean and reinstalling a new version of windows you will want to have a formatted drive and a DOS boot disk. You can create a boot disk by getting a blank floppy and open My Computer then right click on (A:) and select format. Then select option "Copy System files" which then will create a disk for booting up in DOS prompt once you have fomatted your hard drive for Windows installation. If you have a existing drive that you want transfer your data to your new hard drive, you will want to get a DiskCopy utility from (www.powerquest.com). Also note that DISKCOPY and XCOPY will not copy hidden and system files. Once you have all disk backed up and ready to move, clear a space on a desk or table and unplug your computer and carry the case where it is well lighted. Remove the screws holding the out shell of your case, and remove out shell. Now you should be able to see the motherboard and all the insides. So you know, the box in the top left with red, yellow, and black cables coming out is the power supply. At the end of those wires is a connecter with 4 pin holes. Then the ribbons you see are what transfer the data from the drive to the motherboard. Look at your existing setup and look how they connect to the floppy drive etc.

III.The Installation of the HD

Ok. Now your ready to install the hard drive. If your replacing a existing drive look at the jumper settings on the back of your hard drive. Jumpers are what tell your computer what its purpose is. They are pins in sets of 2. They look like this :::[:]:: with ( :=pins and []=the jumper which slids on the pins. ) Once you find out what your existing drive's jumper settings are you then can set your new hard drives jumper settings to the same as the existing. Most drives have listed what the settings are but if they are not listed on the actual hard drive you should refer to the manufacturers website. Your new hard drive should be set on Master and if your just adding an additional hard drive set your old one to slave and new one to master. Now when putting in your new drive you are going to want to slide it in ussually below floppy drive or anywhere you have room. Once you have it slid in connect the power connector to the drive and the wide EIDE ribbon with the pink line on the right near the power connector. Once installation is complete of your hard drive, re-connect the cables and moniter and turn on the power.

IV.CMOS Check

On boot enter your PC's setup program(On boot it ussually shows you what key to press for system setup) and check the BIOS for drives 1 and 2 if you added an additional hard drive. Make sure both drives are set on AUTO so it can detect and set up correctly. Save and reboot.

V.Conclusion

Once windows is booted up check out the new drive and make sure it is working properly. If you added a drive reformat the old one so now you can prepare it for more data. I hope this helped you in the steps of installing or upgrading a new hard drive. If you have any suggestions or questions feel free to email me. More tutorials to come and soon a HTML version with picture references.

VI.Tools and Utilities

Disk Copy Utility
--(http://www.powerquest.com)

Title: Installing a Hard Drive


Table of Contents:

Intro
I.Supplies needed and costs
II.Steps before installation and preparation
III.The Installation of the HD
IV.CMOS Check
V.Tools and Utilities
VI.Conclusion
VII.Contact Info

Intro

So your old hard drive is acting up? or just too small? Well you came to the right place. In this tutorial I will provide you with information on installing a new hard drive in addition to your old hard drive, and tell you how to upgrade and existing hard drive. Please follow the tutorial step by step and read it all carefully or you could end up loosing all your existing data. So enjoy this tutorial from Blacksun.box.sk. And for more hardware installation guides visit Blacksun Research Facility.

I.Supplies needed and costs

Supplies you need will be:

A Hard drive ($50-$250 depending on size)
Phillips Screwdriver (Should have)
Needlenose Pliers (Should have)
Anti-static wrist strap(optional)
II.Steps before installation and preparation

Before you start digging around in your computer...you are going to want to get everything you need at hand. If you are starting clean and reinstalling a new version of windows you will want to have a formatted drive and a DOS boot disk. You can create a boot disk by getting a blank floppy and open My Computer then right click on (A:) and select format. Then select option "Copy System files" which then will create a disk for booting up in DOS prompt once you have fomatted your hard drive for Windows installation. If you have a existing drive that you want transfer your data to your new hard drive, you will want to get a DiskCopy utility from (www.powerquest.com). Also note that DISKCOPY and XCOPY will not copy hidden and system files. Once you have all disk backed up and ready to move, clear a space on a desk or table and unplug your computer and carry the case where it is well lighted. Remove the screws holding the out shell of your case, and remove out shell. Now you should be able to see the motherboard and all the insides. So you know, the box in the top left with red, yellow, and black cables coming out is the power supply. At the end of those wires is a connecter with 4 pin holes. Then the ribbons you see are what transfer the data from the drive to the motherboard. Look at your existing setup and look how they connect to the floppy drive etc.

III.The Installation of the HD

Ok. Now your ready to install the hard drive. If your replacing a existing drive look at the jumper settings on the back of your hard drive. Jumpers are what tell your computer what its purpose is. They are pins in sets of 2. They look like this :::[:]:: with ( :=pins and []=the jumper which slids on the pins. ) Once you find out what your existing drive's jumper settings are you then can set your new hard drives jumper settings to the same as the existing. Most drives have listed what the settings are but if they are not listed on the actual hard drive you should refer to the manufacturers website. Your new hard drive should be set on Master and if your just adding an additional hard drive set your old one to slave and new one to master. Now when putting in your new drive you are going to want to slide it in ussually below floppy drive or anywhere you have room. Once you have it slid in connect the power connector to the drive and the wide EIDE ribbon with the pink line on the right near the power connector. Once installation is complete of your hard drive, re-connect the cables and moniter and turn on the power.

IV.CMOS Check

On boot enter your PC's setup program(On boot it ussually shows you what key to press for system setup) and check the BIOS for drives 1 and 2 if you added an additional hard drive. Make sure both drives are set on AUTO so it can detect and set up correctly. Save and reboot.

V.Conclusion

Once windows is booted up check out the new drive and make sure it is working properly. If you added a drive reformat the old one so now you can prepare it for more data. I hope this helped you in the steps of installing or upgrading a new hard drive. If you have any suggestions or questions feel free to email me. More tutorials to come and soon a HTML version with picture references.

VI.Tools and Utilities

Disk Copy Utility
--(http://www.powerquest.com)